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Context-Aware Maximum Mean Discrepancy


The context-aware maximum mean discrepancy drift detector (Cobb and Van Looveren, 2022) is a kernel based method for detecting drift in a manner that can take relevant context into account. A normal drift detector detects when the distributions underlying two sets of samples \(\{x^0_i\}_{i=1}^{n_0}\) and \(\{x^1_i\}_{i=1}^{n_1}\) differ. A context-aware drift detector only detects differences that can not be attributed to a corresponding difference between sets of associated context variables \(\{c^0_i\}_{i=1}^{n_0}\) and \(\{c^1_i\}_{i=1}^{n_1}\).

Context-aware drift detectors afford practitioners the flexibility to specify their desired context variable. It could be a transformation of the data, such as a subset of features, or an unrelated indexing quantity, such as the time or weather. Everything that the practitioner wishes to allow to change between the reference window and test window should be captured within the context variable.

On a technical level, the method operates in a manner similar to the maximum mean discrepancy detector. However, instead of using an estimate of the squared difference between kernel mean embeddings of \(X_{\text{ref}}\) and \(X_{\text{test}}\) as the test statistic, we now use an estimate of the expected squared difference between the kernel conditional mean embeddings of \(X_{\text{ref}}|C\) and \(X_{\text{test}}|C\). As well as the kernel defined on the space of data \(X\) required to define the test statistic, estimating the statistic additionally requires a kernel defined on the space of the context variable \(C\). For any given realisation of the test statistic an associated p-value is then computed using a conditional permutation test.

The detector is designed for cases where the training data contains a rich variety of contexts and individual test windows may cover a much more limited subset. It is assumed that the test contexts remain within the support of those observed in the reference set.




  • x_ref: Data used as reference distribution.

  • c_ref: Context for the reference distribution.

Keyword arguments:

  • backend: Both TensorFlow and PyTorch implementations of the context-aware MMD detector as well as various preprocessing steps are available. Specify the backend (tensorflow or pytorch). Defaults to tensorflow.

  • p_val: p-value used for significance of the permutation test.

  • preprocess_at_init: Whether to already apply the (optional) preprocessing step to the reference data x_ref at initialization and store the preprocessed data. Dependent on the preprocessing step, this can reduce the computation time for the predict step significantly, especially when the reference dataset is large. Defaults to True. It is possible that it needs to be set to False if the preprocessing step requires statistics from both the reference and test data, such as the mean or standard deviation.

  • update_ref: Reference data can optionally be updated to the last N instances seen by the detector. The parameter should be passed as a dictionary {‘last’: N}.

  • preprocess_fn: Function to preprocess the data (x_ref and x) before computing the data drift metrics. Typically a dimensionality reduction technique. NOTE: Preprocessing is not applied to the context data.

  • x_kernel: Kernel defined on the data x_*. Defaults to a Gaussian RBF kernel (from alibi_detect.utils.pytorch import GaussianRBF or from alibi_detect.utils.tensorflow import GaussianRBF dependent on the backend used).

  • c_kernel: Kernel defined on the context c_*. Defaults to a Gaussian RBF kernel (from alibi_detect.utils.pytorch import GaussianRBF or from alibi_detect.utils.tensorflow import GaussianRBF dependent on the backend used).

  • n_permutations: Number of permutations used in the conditional permutation test.

  • prop_c_held: Proportion of contexts held out to condition on.

  • n_folds: Number of cross-validation folds used when tuning the regularisation parameters.

  • batch_size: If not None, then compute batches of MMDs at a time rather than all at once which could lead to memory issues.

  • input_shape: Optionally pass the shape of the input data.

  • data_type: can specify data type added to the metadata. E.g. ‘tabular’ or ‘image’.

  • verbose: Whether or not to print progress during configuration.

Additional PyTorch keyword arguments:

  • device: cuda or gpu to use the GPU and cpu for the CPU. If the device is not specified, the detector will try to leverage the GPU if possible and otherwise fall back on CPU.

Initialized drift detector example with the PyTorch backend:

from import ContextMMDDrift

cd = ContextMMDDrift(x_ref, c_ref, p_val=.05, backend='pytorch')

The same detector in TensorFlow:

from import ContextMMDDrift

cd = ContextMMDDrift(x_ref, c_ref, p_val=.05, backend='tensorflow')

Detect Drift

We detect data drift by simply calling predict on a batch of test or deployment instances x and contexts c. We can return the p-value and the threshold of the permutation test by setting return_p_val to True and the context-aware maximum mean discrepancy metric and threshold by setting return_distance to True. We can also set return_coupling to True which additionally returns the coupling matrices \(W_\text{ref,test}\), \(W_\text{ref,ref}\) and \(W_\text{test,test}\). As illustrated in the examples (text, ECGs) this can provide deep insights into where the reference and test distributions are similar and where they differ.

The prediction takes the form of a dictionary with meta and data keys. meta contains the detector’s metadata while data is also a dictionary which contains the actual predictions stored in the following keys:

  • is_drift: 1 if the sample tested has drifted from the reference data and 0 otherwise.

  • p_val: contains the p-value if return_p_val equals True.

  • threshold: p-value threshold if return_p_val equals True.

  • distance: conditional MMD^2 metric between the reference data and the new batch if return_distance equals True.

  • distance_threshold: conditional MMD^2 metric value from the permutation test which corresponds to the the p-value threshold.

  • coupling_xx: coupling matrix \(W_\text{ref,ref}\) for the reference data.

  • coupling_yy: coupling matrix \(W_\text{test,test}\) for the test data.

  • coupling_xy: coupling matrix \(W_\text{ref,test}\) between the reference and test data.

preds = cd.predict(x, c, return_p_val=True, return_distance=True, return_coupling=True)



Context-aware drift detection on news articles

Time series

Context-aware drift detection on ECGs