alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular module

This module contains utility functions for the Counterfactual with Reinforcement Learning tabular class, alibi.explainers.cfrl_tabular, that are common for both Tensorflow and Pytorch backends.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.apply_category_mapping(X, category_map)[source]

Applies a category mapping for the categorical feature in the array. It transforms ints back to strings to be readable.

Parameters
  • X (ndarray) – Array containing the columns to be mapped.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. Keys are columns index, and values are list of feature values.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Transformed array.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.generate_categorical_condition(X_ohe, feature_names, category_map, immutable_features, conditional=True)[source]

Generates categorical features conditional vector. For a categorical feature of cardinality K, we condition the subset of allowed feature through a binary mask of dimension K. When training the counterfactual generator, the mask values are sampled from Bern(0.5). For immutable features, only the original input feature value is set to one in the binary mask. For example, the immutability of the marital_status having the current value married is encoded through the binary sequence [1, 0, 0], given an ordering of the possible feature values [married, unmarried, divorced].

Parameters
  • X_ohe (ndarray) – One-hot encoding representation of the element(s) for which the conditional vector will be generated. The elements are required since some features can be immutable. In that case, the mask vector is the one-hot encoding itself for that particular feature.

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values.

  • immutable_features (List[str]) – List of immutable features.

  • conditional (bool) – Boolean flag to generate a conditional vector. If False the conditional vector does not impose any restrictions on the feature value.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Conditional vector for categorical feature.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.generate_condition(X_ohe, feature_names, category_map, ranges, immutable_features, conditional=True)[source]

Generates conditional vector.

Parameters
  • X_ohe (ndarray) – One-hot encoding representation of the element(s) for which the conditional vector will be generated. This method assumes that the input array, X_ohe, is has the first columns corresponding to the numerical features, and the rest are one-hot encodings of the categorical columns. The numerical and the categorical columns are ordered by the original column index( e.g. numerical = (1, 4), categorical=(0, 2, 3)).

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values.

  • ranges (Dict[str, List[float]]) – Dictionary of ranges for numerical features. Each value is a list containing two elements, first one negative and the second one positive.

  • immutable_features (List[str]) – List of immutable map features.

  • conditional (bool) – Boolean flag to generate a conditional vector. If False the conditional vector does not impose any restrictions on the feature value.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Conditional vector.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.generate_numerical_condition(X_ohe, feature_names, category_map, ranges, immutable_features, conditional=True)[source]

Generates numerical features conditional vector. For numerical features with a minimum value a_min and a maximum value a_max, we include in the conditional vector the values -p_min, p_max, where p_min, p_max are in [0, 1]. The range [-p_min, p_max] encodes a shift and scale-invariant representation of the interval [a - p_min * (a_max - a_min), a + p_max * (a_max - a_min)], where `a is the original feature value. During training, p_min and p_max are sampled from Beta(2, 2) for each unconstrained feature. Immutable features can be encoded by p_min = p_max = 0 or listed in immutable_features list. Features allowed to increase or decrease only correspond to setting p_min = 0 or p_max = 0, respectively. For example, allowing the age feature to increase by up to 5 years is encoded by taking p_min = 0, p_max=0.1, assuming the minimum age of 10 and the maximum age of 60 years in the training set: 5 = 0.1 * (60 - 10).

Parameters
  • X_ohe (ndarray) – One-hot encoding representation of the element(s) for which the conditional vector will be generated. This argument is used to extract the number of conditional vector. The choice of X_ohe instead of a size argument is for consistency purposes with categorical_cond function.

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values.

  • ranges (Dict[str, List[float]]) – Dictionary of ranges for numerical features. Each value is a list containing two elements, first one negative and the second one positive.

  • immutable_features (List[str]) – Dictionary of immutable features. The keys are the column indexes and the values are booleans: True if the feature is immutable, False otherwise.

  • conditional (bool) – Boolean flag to generate a conditional vector. If False the conditional vector does not impose any restrictions on the feature value.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Conditional vector for numerical features.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.get_categorical_conditional_vector(X, condition, preprocessor, feature_names, category_map, immutable_features=None, diverse=False)[source]

Generates a conditional vector. The condition is expressed a a delta change of the feature. For categorical feature, if the Occupation can change to Blue-Collar or White-Collar the delta change is [‘Blue-Collar’, ‘White-Collar’]. Note that the original value is optional as it is included by default.

Parameters
  • X (ndarray) – Instances for which to generate the conditional vector in the original input format.

  • condition (Dict[str, List[Union[float, str]]]) – Dictionary of conditions per feature. For numerical features it expects a range that contains the original value. For categorical features it expects a list of feature values per features that includes the original value.

  • preprocessor (Callable[[ndarray], ndarray]) – Data preprocessor. The preprocessor should standardize the numerical values and convert categorical ones into one-hot encoding representation. By convention, numerical features should be first, followed by the rest of categorical ones.

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • immutable_features (Optional[List[str]]) – List of immutable features.

  • diverse – Whether to generate a diverse set of conditional vectors. A diverse set of conditional vector can generate a diverse set of counterfactuals for a given input instance.

Return type

List[ndarray]

Returns

List of conditional vectors for each categorical feature.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.get_conditional_dim(feature_names, category_map)[source]

Computes the dimension of the conditional vector.

Parameters
  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values. This should be provided by the dataset.

Return type

int

Returns

Dimension of the conditional vector

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.get_conditional_vector(X, condition, preprocessor, feature_names, category_map, stats, ranges=None, immutable_features=None, diverse=False)[source]

Generates a conditional vector. The condition is expressed a a delta change of the feature.

For numerical features, if the Age feature is allowed to increase up to 10 more years, the delta change is [0, 10]. If the Hours per week is allowed to decrease down to -5 and increases up to +10, then the delta change is [-5, +10]. Note that the interval must go include 0.

For categorical feature, if the Occupation can change to Blue-Collar or White-Collar the delta change is [‘Blue-Collar’, ‘White-Collar’]. Note that the original value is optional as it is included by default.

Parameters
  • X (ndarray) – Instances for which to generate the conditional vector in the original input format.

  • condition (Dict[str, List[Union[float, str]]]) – Dictionary of conditions per feature. For numerical features it expects a range that contains the original value. For categorical features it expects a list of feature values per features that includes the original value.

  • preprocessor (Callable[[ndarray], ndarray]) – Data preprocessor. The preprocessor should standardize the numerical values and convert categorical ones into one-hot encoding representation. By convention, numerical features should be first, followed by the rest of categorical ones.

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • stats (Dict[int, Dict[str, float]]) – Dictionary of statistic of the training data. Contains the minimum and maximum value of each numerical feature in the training set. Each key is an index of the column and each value is another dictionary containing min and max keys.

  • ranges (Optional[Dict[str, List[float]]]) – Dictionary of ranges for numerical feature. Each value is a list containing two elements, first one negative and the second one positive.

  • immutable_features (Optional[List[str]]) – List of immutable features.

  • diverse – Whether to generate a diverse set of conditional vectors. A diverse set of conditional vector can generate a diverse set of counterfactuals for a given input instance.

Return type

ndarray

Returns

Conditional vector.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.get_he_preprocessor(X, feature_names, category_map, feature_types=None)[source]

Heterogeneous dataset preprocessor. The numerical features are standardized and the categorical features are one-hot encoded.

Parameters
  • X (ndarray) – Data to fit.

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • feature_types (Optional[Dict[str, type]]) – Dictionary of type for the numerical features.

Return type

Tuple[Callable[[ndarray], ndarray], Callable[[ndarray], ndarray]]

Returns

  • preprocessor – Data preprocessor.

  • inv_preprocessor – Inverse data preprocessor (e.g., inv_preprocessor(preprocessor(x)) = x )

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.get_numerical_conditional_vector(X, condition, preprocessor, feature_names, category_map, stats, ranges=None, immutable_features=None, diverse=False)[source]

Generates a conditional vector. The condition is expressed a a delta change of the feature. For numerical features, if the Age feature is allowed to increase up to 10 more years, the delta change is [0, 10]. If the Hours per week is allowed to decrease down to -5 and increases up to +10, then the delta change is [-5, +10]. Note that the interval must go include 0.

Parameters
  • X (ndarray) – Instances for which to generate the conditional vector in the original input format.

  • condition (Dict[str, List[Union[float, str]]]) – Dictionary of conditions per feature. For numerical features it expects a range that contains the original value. For categorical features it expects a list of feature values per features that includes the original value.

  • preprocessor (Callable[[ndarray], ndarray]) – Data preprocessor. The preprocessor should standardize the numerical values and convert categorical ones into one-hot encoding representation. By convention, numerical features should be first, followed by the rest of categorical ones.

  • feature_names (List[str]) – List of feature names. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values. This should be provided by the dataset.

  • stats (Dict[int, Dict[str, float]]) – Dictionary of statistic of the training data. Contains the minimum and maximum value of each numerical feature in the training set. Each key is an index of the column and each value is another dictionary containing min and max keys.

  • ranges (Optional[Dict[str, List[float]]]) – Dictionary of ranges for numerical feature. Each value is a list containing two elements, first one negative and the second one positive.

  • immutable_features (Optional[List[str]]) – List of immutable features.

  • diverse – Whether to generate a diverse set of conditional vectors. A diverse set of conditional vector can generate a diverse set of counterfactuals for a given input instance.

Return type

List[ndarray]

Returns

List of conditional vectors for each numerical feature.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.get_statistics(X, preprocessor, category_map)[source]

Computes statistics.

Parameters
  • X (ndarray) – Instances for which to compute statistic.

  • preprocessor (Callable[[ndarray], ndarray]) – Data preprocessor. The preprocessor should standardize the numerical values and convert categorical ones into one-hot encoding representation. By convention, numerical features should be first, followed by the rest of categorical ones.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible feature values. This should be provided by the dataset.

Return type

Dict[int, Dict[str, float]]

Returns

Dictionary of statistics. For each numerical column, the minimum and maximum value is returned.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.sample(X_hat_split, X_ohe, C, category_map, stats)[source]

Samples an instance from the given reconstruction according to the conditional vector and the dictionary of statistics.

Parameters
  • X_hat_split (List[ndarray]) – List of reconstructed columns from the auto-encoder. The categorical columns contain logits.

  • X_ohe (ndarray) – One-hot encoded representation of the input.

  • C (Optional[ndarray]) – Conditional vector.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible values for a feature.

  • stats (Dict[int, Dict[str, float]]) – Dictionary of statistic of the training data. Contains the minimum and maximum value of each numerical feature in the training set. Each key is an index of the column and each value is another dictionary containing min and max keys.

Return type

List[ndarray]

Returns

X_ohe_hat_split – Most probable reconstruction sample according to the autoencoder, sampled according to the conditional vector and the dictionary of statistics. This method assumes that the input array, X_ohe , has the first columns corresponding to the numerical features, and the rest are one-hot encodings of the categorical columns.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.sample_categorical(X_hat_cat_split, C_cat_split)[source]

Samples categorical features according to the conditional vector. This method sample conditional according to the masking vector the most probable outcome.

Parameters
  • X_hat_cat_split (List[ndarray]) – List of reconstructed categorical heads from the auto-encoder. The categorical columns contain logits.

  • C_cat_split (Optional[List[ndarray]]) – List of conditional vector for categorical heads.

Return type

List[ndarray]

Returns

X_ohe_hat_cat – List of one-hot encoded vectors sampled according to the conditional vector.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.sample_numerical(X_hat_num_split, X_ohe_num_split, C_num_split, stats)[source]

Samples numerical features according to the conditional vector. This method clips the values between the desired ranges specified in the conditional vector, and ensures that the values are between the minimum and the maximum values from train training datasets stored in the dictionary of statistics.

Parameters
  • X_hat_num_split (List[ndarray]) – List of reconstructed numerical heads from the auto-encoder. This list should contain a single element as all the numerical features are part of a singe linear layer output.

  • X_ohe_num_split (List[ndarray]) – List of original numerical heads. The list should contain a single element as part of the convention mentioned in the description of X_ohe_hat_num.

  • C_num_split (Optional[List[ndarray]]) – List of conditional vector for numerical heads. The list should contain a single element as part of the convention mentioned in the description of X_ohe_hat_num.

  • stats (Dict[int, Dict[str, float]]) – Dictionary of statistic of the training data. Contains the minimum and maximum value of each numerical feature in the training set. Each key is an index of the column and each value is another dictionary containing min and max keys.

Return type

List[ndarray]

Returns

X_ohe_hat_num – List of clamped input vectors according to the conditional vectors and the dictionary of statistics.

alibi.explainers.backends.cfrl_tabular.split_ohe(X_ohe, category_map)[source]

Splits a one-hot encoding array in a list of numerical heads and a list of categorical heads. Since by convention the numerical heads are merged in a single head, if the function returns a list of numerical heads, then the size of the list is 1.

Parameters
  • X_ohe (Union[np.ndarray, torch.Tensor, tf.Tensor]) – One-hot encoding representation. This can be any type of tensor: np.ndarray, torch.Tensor, tf.Tensor.

  • category_map (Dict[int, List[str]]) – Dictionary of category mapping. The keys are column indexes and the values are lists containing the possible values of a feature.

Return type

Tuple[List, List]

Returns

  • X_ohe_num_split – List of numerical heads. If different than None, the list’s size is 1.

  • X_ohe_cat_split – List of categorical one-hot encoded heads.